107.9FM NYJ/LA


PRODUCT OF HARDTIMES RADIO

L I V E ON THE AIRWAVES

LIVE ON THE AIRWAVES 

PRESS PLAY

PLUGGED IN

 BOOGiE145_RADiO #GORiLLAHiTTTLiST  #Feat.

Mars Was Always Destined to Die

Posted by Jeffrey Kluger on Tuesday, September 21, 2021 Under: #EssexCounty

Mars is the solar system’s near-miss world. Earth may have gotten everything right when it came to sustaining life—atmosphere, water, proximity to the sun. Mercury, Venus and the outer planets, with their extreme temperatures and inhospitable chemistry, may have gotten everything wrong. Mars, on the other hand, came so close, yet fell short.

a view of a beach: This image was captured while NASA's Perseverance rover drove on Mars for the first time on March 4, 2021.© NASA/JPL-Caltech This image was captured while NASA's Perseverance rover drove on Mars for the first time on March 4, 2021.

Thanks to data from rovers and other spacecraft, we know that the Red Planet once fairly sloshed with water—with dry deltas, riverbeds, and sea basins stamped into its surface. But 4 billion years ago, the Martian core cooled, shutting down the dynamo that sustained its magnetic field. That left the planet vulnerable to the solar wind, which clawed away the atmosphere, and allowed the Martian water to sputter into space. Before long—in geological terms—the planet was a desert.

At least that’s long been the thinking. But a new paper published Sept. 20 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences suggests otherwise. According to the new research, Mars was doomed from the start. Its small size—about half the diameter of Earth and less than one-ninth the mass—simply never produced the gravitational muscle to allow the planet to hold onto either its air or its water. With or without a magnetic field, Mars was destined to die.

The study, led by planetary scientist Zhen Tian of Washington University in St. Louis, relied on the analysis of 20 meteorites whose chemical composition establishes that they originated as bits of Mars. The rocks range in age from just a few hundred million to 4 billion years old. Such a sample comfortably spans Mars’s transition from a wet world to a dry one, but even in the oldest rocks, there would be no traces of moisture to be found. The passage of time—to say nothing of the long trip the meteorites made through space—would have caused a compound as volatile as water to have evaporated entirely.

Instead of water, the investigators looked for isotopic potassium, which was present in abundance on early Mars and can be used as a sort of chemical proxy for water. “Potassium is a moderately volatile element (mimicking the behavior of highly volatile elements), but it is not too volatile to get completely lost,” wrote Kun Wang, a planetary scientist at Washington University and one of the authors of the study, in an email to TIME. “It is easier to measure in high precision.” The more isotopic potassium the investigators found in the rocks, the more water there would have been.


Video: SpaceX crew plays Ukuele in space (Associated Press)

Current Time 0:47
Duration 1:44
Loaded74.70%
0
SpaceX crew plays Ukuele in space

As it turns out, there would not have been much. The age of the rocks and the level of potassium left in them indicated that not only did the water not wait around for the magnetic field to shut down and the atmosphere to stream away before it vanished too; it actually began disappearing before the once-molten planet had even fully cooled.

“The total budget of water and other volatiles was set at the formation of Mars,” says Wang. “The loss of water and volatiles for the planet occurred at its hot and violent stage.” That stage, he adds, was “much earlier” than the shut down of the magnetic field.

The researchers did not limit their study to Mars alone. Comparing the amount of potassium in the meteorites to the known water on the moon and the 525-km (326-mi) wide asteroid Vesta, they found a sort of stair-stepping in water quantity that directly follows gravity and mass: Mars is drier than the Earth, but wetter than the smaller moon, which is in turn wetter than tiny Vesta.

That has implications for the possibility of finding life not just on Mars but on exoplanets—worlds orbiting other stars. Astronomers typically look for smallish, rocky planets like Earth as the likeliest places biology could emerge, especially if those planets are found in the so-called “Goldilocks zone” around their stars—a place where temperatures are not too hot and not too cold for liquid water to exist. But too small a planet, it now appears, would be dry no matter the local temperature.

“There is likely a threshold on the size requirements of rocky planets to retain enough water to enable habitability,” Wang said in a statement accompanying the paper.

The new study does not entirely rule out the possibility of Martian biology. The once-wet world did not lose all of its water to space. Some is entrained in permafrost at the poles, and more may have retreated underground, in aquifers where the water would be liquid at least for some parts of the Martian year. Forms of microbial life that emerged in the planet’s earlier, wetter era may have found refuge there ever since. Mars was never going to be a garden world like Earth, but that doesn’t mean it can’t stir still.

In : #EssexCounty 


Tags: mars was always destined to die 
comments powered by Disqus

 

 

Greenhouse Seeds
Flag Counter
Flag Counter

@girlcollection Girl Collection 2580 S Highland Dr Las Vegas, NV  89109

A post shared by Girl Collection (@girlcollection) on

@girlcollection Las Vegas, Nevada

Welcome to the all new "GIRL COLLECTION". We are an upscale, Gentleman's Club offering a great opportunity for talented dancers (both local and out of state) to dance for what is set to be the hottest Gentlemen's Club in all of Las Vegas! If you are a talented and energetic, exotic dancer looking to earn top dollar in a professional, luxurious and fun environment, then "GIRL COLLECTION"  is where you need to be. EXOTIC DANCERS from all over the world are welcome to contact us at: GCISHIRING@GMAIL.COM to inquire about dancer positions in our Gentleman's Club "GIRL COLLECTION”. Please include your best and most recent FULL BODY photos and HEADSHOT along with a resume of your experience and or why you should be chosen to work in our super exclusive club. Please be sure all photos ONLY include yourself as we are very exclusive and bare the right to be selective. YOU MUST BE AT LEAST 21 TO APPLY. "GIRL COLLECTION” is a Premier, Three Tiered Ultra Gentleman's Club who’s music choice is up to trend and we prefer to work with dependable, professional and committed entertainers that are flexible in genre’s they can perform at maximum to. IMPORTANT: Once we have received your inquiries at GCISHIRING@GMAIL.COM and have established potential candidates via official face to face interview process at: GIRL COLLECTION 2580 S. HIGHLAND DR. LAS VEGAS, NV 89109 "GIRL COLLECTION” will then provide you with an official application/referral form to proceed fulfilling the following state mandated requirements established by LVMPD as stated below prior to gaining willful employment by our company: Dancer requirements: • S.C.O.P.E. (LVMPD) - S.C.O.P.E: No more than 1 week old* • Business License - To Obtain: Grant Sawyer Building 555 E Washington Ave. Suite 1300 Las Vegas, NV • Sheriffs Card (LVMPD) - To Obtain: Will Need 2 forms of ID Drivers license (State ID) & Social Security Card Along with Application/Referral Form Provided to you by “Girl Collection” Video Credit: @NEWWAVEUSA

A post shared by Girl Collection (@girlcollection) on

 


 



FROM THE BACK WiTH KASH DOLL* CLOSE CAPTION -

FREE ON ‪#‎iPhone‬-‪#‎iPad‬-‪#‎Android‬ [GHiTTT 84.8 FMNY/LA :http://play.pea.fm/26375-ghittt848.html

[ http://mixlr.com/gorillahittt-848-fm  ]

‪#‎HIPHOP‬ - #R&B - ‪#‎REGGAE‬

-FEAT

THE MUSIC YOU SENT IN:

GORILLAHITTT84.8FM@gmail.com

50CENT ,BIG L, HUDDY6, E MONEY BAGS,TY DOLLA SIGN REMY MA, DJ MUSTARD,NICKI MINAJ,YG,STaCK Bundles,CAMRON,SMOKE DZA, Noreaga, T.I.,IGGY ,TINY ,MEEK MILLS, JIM JONES,PUSHaT, YOUNG CHRIS, JUS AB S Deuce Music, G MAY, HERB, MCGRUFF, X SANTINO, ROCK LORD, SHAE Taylor, KEV PERRY, Jadakiss, SHEEK LOUCH, STYLES P, GHOST, DRAKE, KSLAY, YOUNG JEEZY, BIGGIE SMALL, DMX, DR.DRE, SNOOP DOG & MORE

 

Time is running out to win this

$5,000

in my fantasy football league! ->

.. Filling up fast

 



 

 

 

 

 

Download

by &


 


 

 

htg

 















































MY BIG HOMMIE


RIP CHRIS LIGHTY -> CLIGHTLY

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/booglarge

 

Eyedictive deals
Get it at Eyedictive
Check it out
57687791

All other sites are charging at least $23 more.


Brad's Deals Editor Julie, 17 hours ago

Details

Exclusively for our readers, these women's Michael Kors sunglassesdrop from $85 to $50 to $32 per pair at Eyedictive when you enter our promo code BRADS18 at checkout. Plus shipping is free. That's the lowest price we found by $23, and most retailers are charging $70-$99 for Michael Kors aviators. These sunglasses provide 100% UV protection, and they ship with a Michael Kors storage case and a cleaning cloth. Better yet, there is no sales tax (except FL).

How to get it

Enter our exclusive promo code BRADS18 in the cart.



 

 

GORILLAHITTT 3.mp3

Instagram
Get it on Google Play

Follow Us

Worth for 145work848.yolasite.com
145work848.com Webutation




Proozy deals
Get it at Proozy
Check it out
63201107

Choose from five colors.

Brad's Deals Editor A.J., 3 hours ago

Details

Exclusively for our readers, this pair of men's Nike Dart 12 Shoes falls from $70 to $35 when you apply our code BD35 at checkout at Proozy. Shipping adds $5.95 or is free on orders over $50. We couldn't find these for less than $50 anywhere else. Five colors are available in sizes 8.5-13. Sales tax is charged in most states.

How to get it

Enter code BD35 at checkout.








Get your tickets now at https://harlemeatup.com







Translate This Page

 


RT @Lena_Chase: @LenaChase shot by @missrobinv

 

Bog Seeds






Make a free website with Yola